Rehabilitation comes from two words, that is re which means return and habilitation which means ability. According to the meaning of the word, rehabilitation means returning ability. Rehabilitation is a process of improvement aimed at people with disabilities so that they are capable of acting to have the maximum physical use possible. spiritual, social, work and economy.
Rehabilitation is defined as “a holistic and integrated program of medical, physical, psychosocial and vocational interventions that empowers a person (individuals with disabilities) to achieve personal achievement, social meaning, and functional effective interaction with the world “(Banja, 1990: 615).
According to Soewito in (Sri Widati, 1984: 5) states that: Rehabilitation of people with disabilities is all effort, both in the fields of health, social, psychological, education, economics, and other fields coordinated to be a continuous process, and which aims to restore physical and mental disabilities to reoccupy a place in the community as a full member who is self-sufficient, productive and useful for society and the State. Suparlan (1993: 124) suggests that rehabilitation is a process of activities to repair and develop one’s physical, abilities and mentality so that the person can overcome social welfare problems for himself and his family.
According to Government Regulation No.36 / 1980, concerning Social Welfare Business for People with Disabilities, rehabilitation is defined as a process of refunctionalization and development to enable people with disabilities to be able to carry out their social functions fairly in social life.
Meanwhile, according to Government Regulation No.72 / 1991 concerning PLB and Minister of Education and Culture Decree No.0126 / U / 1994 in Appendix 1 concerning Platforms, Programs and Development of External Education Curriculum
Ordinarily, it is stated that rehabilitation is an effort of medical, social, and skills assistance given to students to be able to attend education. Business rehabilitation is a process of a series of activities carried out by rehabilitation officers in stages, continuously, and continuously according to needs.
The nature of activities carried out by rehabilitation officers is in the form of assistance, with the understanding that each rehabilitation effort must always be oriented towards giving opportunity for students who are helped to try and solve their own problems (client centered).
So it’s not oriented on the ability of the implementing / rehabilitation team (provider centered).
The direction of rehabilitation activities is refunction and development. Functionalization means that rehabilitation is more directed at returning functions from the ability of students, while the development is directed to explore / discover and utilize the ability of students who still exist and the potential they have for fulfill the function of self and social function where it lives.
In Law No. 4 of 1997 it is explained that Rehabilitation is directed to re-function and develop physical, mental and social abilities people with disabilities to be able to carry out their social functions fairly according to their talents, abilities, education and experience.
The main goal of rehabilitation is to help the person achieve optimal independence physically, mentally, socially, vocationally and economically according to his ability. This means helping these individuals reach their maximum capacity to obtain life satisfaction while still recognizing the related technical constraints with limited technology and financial resources and other sources.
The purpose of rehabilitation is the realization of children / learners with disabilities that are useful (useful). This useful understanding contains two meanings, namely: First, participants students are able to overcome problems from their disabilities, can adapt to their shortcomings, and have social and vocational dexterity.
Second, useful understanding also implies that students have shortcomings. This means that the conditions of maximum achievement may not be the same as normal children, and in minimal conditions disabled students do not depend on others in managing and supporting themselves.
In addition, useful aspects can also include self realization, human relationship, economic efficiency, and civic responsibility. That is, through activities rehabilitation activities, disabled students are expected:
a. Can be aware of the disorder and can master yourself in such a way, so that you do not rely on others (self realization).
b. Can get along and work with other people in the group, know their role, and can adjust to their role. Can understand and carry out their duties well. Can understand the limits of behavior, can adapt to the social environment, ethical relationships, religion, and not separate, not inferior, and not excessive, and able to get along naturally with their environment (human relationship).
c. Having certain productive economic skills and abilities that can guarantee future life in the economic field (economic efficiency). Besides that the skill ability to use certain motion organs that are already skilled (for example being able to use a wheelchair) is maintained to maintain his skills.
d. Having responsibility and being able to participate in the community environment, at a minimum it does not interfere with community life (civic responsibility).
The focus of rehabilitation efforts is individuals holistically in their ecological context, not only on functional limitations due to their disability.
A holistic and ecological perspective encompasses the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of the individual concerned and their relationship to their family, work and the whole environment. Humans are not seen as merely separate components such as physical, mental, psychological, cultural, and economy, but as a whole which includes all these components. The target of rehabilitation is an individual as a totality consisting of physical, psychological, and as a member of the community.
The target of rehabilitation is quite broad, because it is not only focused on people with disabilities, but also to rehabilitation officers, parents and families, community, government and private institutions and related social organizations.
In detail Qoleman (1988: 663) stated that the rehabilitation objectives are as follows:
a. Increase individual insight into the problems faced, difficulties and behavior.
b. Form a better figure of self identity in individuals.
c. Solve inhibiting and disturbing conflicts.
d. Change and improve unwanted behavior patterns and behavioral reaction patterns.
e. Improve the ability to do interpersonal relationships and other abilities.
f. Modification of individual assumptions that are not appropriate about himself and the world of his environment.
g. Open the way for individual existence that is more meaningful and meaningful or useful.