Characteristics and main causes of persons with psychotic disorders. Psychotic is a disorder that is characterized by the loss of reality testing from the sufferer, namely a broken mind with the real world. Patients cannot distinguish between what is real and what is not real. The main characteristic of people with psychosis is that they experience delusions and hallucinations.
The diagnositic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 5 (DSM-5) categorizes psychotic symptoms into the spectrum of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. They are called abnormal when seen one or several symptoms, namely delusions, hallucinations, thought disorganization, abnormal motor behavior, and negative symptoms, namely abnormal conditions associated with schizophrenia but less visible in other psychotic disorders.
Until now it was believed that the cause of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia was due to biochemical factors and brain pathology. In addition, environmental factors can trigger disturbances or worsen the condition of this disorder.
Psychotherapy is a serious mental disorder and can have a critical impact both on the patient and on their families and environment. This paper will describe the factors that cause psychotic disorders from the biopsychosocial aspects, as well as the problems experienced by people with disorders. In addition, it will illustrate what services are needed for them and those services involve multi-disciplinary / professional teams so as to produce comprehensive services.
Social work sees the causes of psychotic disorders not solely caused by internal deficiencies of individuals but is influenced by various influencing factors, namely biological, psychological and social factors. A stressful life caused by various factors such as economic crisis, unemployment, living in an unsafe community, failure to fulfill social roles, inadequate parenting, traumatic experiences, low resistance to stress, use of illegal drugs , or a chaotic environmental arrangement can cause poor quality of life. If someone with low resilience or vulnerable group experiences some of these factors, mental disorders such as piskotik can occur.
Genetic factors and biochemical processes in the body to social factors such as labeling can also explain how psychotic disorders can arise and factors such as labeling can aggravate the situation of psychotic clients. Human behavior, both normal and abnormal, is actually influenced by individual factors and the environment.
Many serious behavioral disorders result from diseases in the body as well as disorders of integration between the body and mind. There is also strong evidence of a relationship between physical, psychological, and social environmental factors that affect mental health in general. Biological functions are the result of complex interactions among all other biological functions. There is not one biological system in the human body that works isolated from others (Hutchison, 2003), and the way this biological system works affects the bad or good mental health or our behavior.
One biological factor that is considered to influence the appearance of psychotic mental disorders is a genetic component. Genetic vulnerability is a concept that refers to genes that increase a person’s risk of experiencing certain mental disorders. But even further this genetic vulnerability factor cannot be separated from environmental influences which may exacerbate the potential and development of disturbances (Kaplan, et al, 1996). In addition to genetic factors, there are also body chemical factors that play a role. Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are suspected to be due to the overactivity of dopamine neurotransmitters. Boyle, et al, (2006) mentioned that dopamine is associated with mood. When dopamine levels are too low, a person is depressed, and when dopamine levels are too high someone becomes manic and creates a psychotic state.
Furthermore, more advanced research in observing biochemical factors in humans raises the hypothesis that the excess or overly sensitive dopamine receptors are more convincing factors as factors in schizophrenia than high dopamine levels (Davison, et al., 2006).
There are also external factors that can affect the body’s biochemical system so that psychotic disorders arise, namely due to the use of several substances and drugs. Some addictive substances, for example, are associated with hallucinations (Pritchard, 2006). The use of substances such as alcohol or cocaine can make a person experience delusions, hallucinations, or confusion. A person who is dependent on illegal drugs will have a bad state on their physiological, behavioral and cognitive aspects.
In addition to biochemical factors, brain pathology factors also contribute to the appearance of psychotic disorders.